Natalizumab, an antibody against the α4 subunit of α4 integrins, has been approved for multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy based on its high efficacy and safety profile. However, natalizumab has been associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a disorder caused by JC virus (JCV) infection. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of natalizumab and to identify possible risk factors for PML development, we have characterized in detail the cell blood composition in MS patients treated with natalizumab for more than 30 months. Natalizumab induced the release of lymphoid- but not myeloid precursor cells, which resulted in a chronic increase ofT-, NK- and particularly B cells. While the percentage of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), naϊve, effector or memory T cells remained unchanged during treatment, a higher percentage of memory- and marginal zone (MZ)-like, but not of naϊve B cells, was observed, which most likely is due to a decreased retention of these cells within the splenic MZ. The ability of natalizumab to influence B-cell migration and homeostasis through the splenic MZ, where JCV has been detected, adds to the list of natalizumab effects and may contribute to PML development by disseminating JCV.
Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.