Inorganic phosphate and FGF-23 predict outcome in stable systolic heart failure

Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 Jun;42(6):649-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02631.x. Epub 2011 Dec 13.


Background: Recent studies show associations between inorganic phosphate and risk of heart failure in the general population as well as between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and outcome in coronary heart disease. This study was carried out to assess whether circulating levels of inorganic phosphate and FGF-23, a new central hormone in mineral bone metabolism, predict outcome in systolic heart failure.

Materials and methods: Ninety-nine consecutive outpatients with systolic heart failure were enrolled. Mean (SD) age was 61 years (11), mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 33% (10), 82 patients were men, median estimated creatinine clearance was 83 mL/min (Q(1) -Q(3) 58-106), median NTproBNP level was 803 pg/mL (Q(1) -Q(3) 404-2757), median inorganic phosphate was 1·12 mM (Q(1) -Q(3) 1·02-1·22), median FGF-23 was 39·02 pg/mL (Q(1) -Q(3) 32·45-55·86) and median follow-up was 35 months. Associations between inorganic phosphate, FGF-23 and endpoints were assessed using Cox regression analyses.

Results: Inorganic phosphate and FGF-23 levels were significantly higher (P < 0·001 and P = 0·009) in patients reaching the combined endpoint of cardiac hospitalization or death. FGF-23 (ln) predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 5·042, P = 0·032) in a model adjusted for age, gender, estimated creatinine clearance, LVEF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) stage and NTproBNP level. Inorganic phosphate predicted heart failure hospitalization (HR 26·944, P = 0·021), cardiac hospitalization (HR 16·016, P = 0·017) and the combined endpoint (HR 13·294, P = 0·015) in models adjusted for the same co-variables.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the independent prognostic value of inorganic phosphate and FGF-23 in heart failure even in the context of established risk markers.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / blood*
  • Heart Failure, Systolic / blood*
  • Heart Failure, Systolic / mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphates / blood*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Phosphates
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • fibroblast growth factor 23