Predicting 14-day mortality after severe traumatic brain injury: application of the IMPACT models in the brain trauma foundation TBI-trac® New York State database

J Neurotrauma. 2012 May 1;29(7):1306-12. doi: 10.1089/neu.2011.1988. Epub 2012 Jan 26.


Prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are important instruments in both clinical practice and research. To remain current a continuous process of model validation is necessary. We aimed to investigate the performance of the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) prognostic models in predicting mortality in a contemporary New York State TBI registry developed and maintained by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) TBI-trac® database contains data on 3125 patients who sustained severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤ 8) in New York State between 2000 and 2009. The outcome measure was 14-day mortality. To predict 14-day mortality with admission data, we adapted the IMPACT Core and Extended models. Performance of the models was assessed by determining calibration (agreement between observed and predicted outcomes), and discrimination (separation of those patients who die from those who survive). Calibration was explored graphically with calibration plots. Discrimination was expressed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). A total of 2513 out of 3125 patients in the BTF database met the inclusion criteria. The 14-day mortality rate was 23%. The models showed excellent calibration. Mean predicted probabilities were 20% for the Core model and 24% for the Extended model. Both models showed good discrimination with AUCs of 0.79 (Core) and 0.83 (Extended). We conclude that the IMPACT models validly predict 14-day mortality in the BTF database, confirming generalizability of these models for outcome prediction in TBI patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Brain Injuries / mortality*
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Neurological
  • Models, Statistical*
  • New York / epidemiology
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Software Validation*
  • Time Factors
  • Trauma Centers / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult