Medication non-adherence is associated with chronic disease and complex medication schedules, and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients also frequently have cognitive impairments that may interfere with effective medication management. The current study quantitatively assessed the medication management skills of PD patients and probed the neurocognitive underpinnings and clinical correlates of this skill. A total of 26 men with PD completed a neuropsychological battery and a modified version of the Hopkins Medication Schedule (HMS), a standard test of a person's ability to understand and implement a routine prescription medication. Estimated adherence rates from performance on the HMS were low. Memory, executive functioning, and processing speed were strongly related to different components of the HMS. A range of neuropsychological abilities is associated with the ability to understand and implement a medication schedule and pillbox in individuals with PD.