The relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis in women aged 45-70 years

Oral Dis. 2012 May;18(4):353-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2011.01881.x. Epub 2011 Dec 12.


Objective: To explore the possible relationship between the osteoporotic condition and the severity of periodontitis in women aged 45-70 years.

Materials and methods: Ninety women with generalized chronic periodontitis, aged 45-70 years, were studied. Areal bone mineral density (BMDa) was assessed using standardized dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (normal: T-score ≥ -1, osteopenic: -2.5 ≤ T-score <-1, osteoporotic: T-score < -2.5). Gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth and gingival recession (GR) were recorded. Periodontitis severity was represented by CAL. Menopausal condition and smoking were documented.

Results: Mean GI, bleeding on probing, CAL and GR were significantly greater for osteoporotic women than women with normal BMDa (P = 0.002, P = 0.01, P = 0.04, respectively). Osteopenic women and women with normal BMDa significantly differed in mean GI (P = 0.02). The associations found between osteoporotic women and women with normal BMDa and the associations found between osteopenic women and women with normal BMDa existed even after adjusting for smoking and menopausal status.

Conclusion: Subjects with osteoporosis (OPR) presented with greater CAL than the subjects with normal BMDa, which suggests a greater severity of periodontitis. Subjects with OPR had greater GR than the subjects with normal BMDa. Subjects with osteopenia and subjects with normal BMDa did not differ in CAL, which might suggest that the early diagnosis of reduced BMDa, prior to the establishment of a significant negative impact on the periodontal tissues, might be important. Smoking and menopausal status did not alter these associations.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / complications
  • Chronic Periodontitis / classification
  • Chronic Periodontitis / complications*
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Female
  • Femur Neck / diagnostic imaging
  • Gingival Hemorrhage / classification
  • Gingival Hemorrhage / complications
  • Gingival Recession / classification
  • Gingival Recession / complications
  • Greece
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / complications*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications
  • Pelvic Bones / diagnostic imaging
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / classification
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / complications
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontal Pocket / classification
  • Periodontal Pocket / complications
  • Premenopause
  • Radiography, Panoramic
  • Smoking