Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors and survival in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke

Int J Stroke. 2012 Jun;7(4):276-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00706.x. Epub 2011 Dec 8.


Background: Differences in risk factor profiles between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke may have an impact on subsequent mortality.

Aim: To explore cardiovascular disease risk factors, including the CHADS(2) score, with survival after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.

Methods: Between 2001 and 2005, 87 111 (83%) ischemic stroke, 12 497 (12%) hemorrhagic stroke, and 5435 (5%) patients with unspecified stroke were identified in the Swedish Stroke Register. Data on gender, age, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death Registers. Adjusted odds and hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models.

Results: Hemorrhagic stroke patients were younger than ischemic stroke patients. All cardiovascular disease risk factors studied, alone or combined in the CHADS(2) score, were associated with higher odds ratios for ischemic stroke vs. hemorrhagic stroke. Higher CHADS(2) scores and all studied risk factors except hypertension were associated with higher odds ratio for death by ischemic stroke than hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke was associated with lower early mortality (within 30 days) vs. hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio = 0·28, confidence interval 0·27 to 0·29).

Conclusions: Patients with hemorrhagic stroke had a higher risk of dying within the first 30 days after stroke, but the risk of death was similar in the two groups after one-month. Hypertension was the only cardiovascular disease risk factor associated with an increased mortality rate for hemorrhagic stroke as compared to ischemic stroke.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brain Ischemia / mortality*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / mortality
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / mortality*
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Young Adult