The objective was to evaluate the determinants of change (Δ) in insulin sensitivity in overweight coronary artery disease male patients without diabetes after an intensive lifestyle intervention. All patients received nutritional counseling and performed 4 months of exercise training (ET) according to 1 of 2 protocols: aerobic ET (65%-70% of peak aerobic capacity [VO(2)]) 25 to 40 minutes 3 times a week (n = 30) or walking (50%-60% of peak VO(2)) 45 to 60 minutes at least 5 times a week (n = 30). Data from participants of both ET groups were pooled, and post-intensive lifestyle intervention results were compared with baseline data. The primary outcome was Δ insulin sensitivity (m-value) assessed by the criterion standard technique, the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Changes in weight, body mass index, total and percentage fat mass (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan), waist circumference, total abdominal and visceral fat (by computed tomographic scan), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, peak VO(2), daily energy intake, and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) (by doubly labeled water technique) were also assessed. Daily energy intake decreased by 335 kcal, and PAEE increased by 482 kcal/d (all P < .0001). The mean weight loss was 6.4 kg, and the mean improvement in m-value was 1.6 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute. Univariate determinants of Δ m-value were low baseline PAEE, walking protocol, Δ weight, Δ body mass index, Δ total and percentage fat mass, Δ waist circumference, Δ total abdominal and visceral fat, and Δ PAEE (all P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the only significant determinant of Δ m-value was Δ PAEE (P < .02). In this analysis, the most powerful determinant of improved insulin sensitivity in overweight coronary artery disease patients is the change in PAEE.
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