Association analysis of -429T/C and -374T/A polymorphisms of receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene in Malaysian with type 2 diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 Mar;95(3):372-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.11.005. Epub 2011 Dec 9.


Conflicting results have been reported in different populations on the association between two particular RAGE gene polymorphisms (-429T/C and -374T/A) and retinopathy in diabetic patients. Therefore this study was designed to assess the association between both gene polymorphisms with retinopathy in Malaysian diabetic patients. A total of 342 type 2 diabetic patients [171 without retinopathy (DNR) and 171 with retinopathy (DR)] and 235 healthy controls were included in this study. Genomic DNA was obtained from blood samples and the screening for the gene polymorphisms was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. Overall, the genotype distribution for both polymorphisms was not statistically different (p>0.05) among the control, DNR and DR groups. The -429C minor allele frequency of DR group (12.0%) was not significantly different (p>0.05) when compared to DNR group (16.1%) and healthy controls (11.3%). The -374A allele frequency also did not differ significantly between the control and DNR (p>0.05), control and DR (p>0.05) as well as DNR and DR groups (p>0.05). This is the first study report on RAGE gene polymorphism in Malaysian DR patients. In conclusion, -429T/C and -374T/A polymorphisms in the promoter region of RAGE gene were not associated with Malaysian type 2 DR patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / genetics*
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Malaysia / epidemiology
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics*


  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic