Appraisal on the wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils obtained from the cones and needles of Pinus species by in vivo and in vitro experimental models

J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 31;139(2):533-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.11.045. Epub 2011 Dec 7.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: According to ethnobotanical data, Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. Essential oils from the cones and needles of five different Pinus species (Pinus brutia Ten., Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus nigra Arn., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) were evaluated for their in vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

Materials and methods: In vivo wound healing activity of the ointments prepared from essential oils was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models subsequently histopathological analysis and hydroxyproline content. Furthermore, the essential oils were screened for anti-hyaluronidase activity. Additionally anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by using the method of Whittle, which is based on the inhibition of acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability.

Results: The essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis demonstrated the highest effects on the wound healing activity models. On the other hand, the rest of the essential oils did not show any significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

Conclusion: The experimental study revealed that essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis display remarkable wound healing activity.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Capillary Permeability / drug effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Hyaluronoglucosaminidase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Hyaluronoglucosaminidase / metabolism
  • Hydroxyproline / metabolism
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Oils, Volatile / isolation & purification
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Pinus* / chemistry
  • Plant Components, Aerial
  • Plant Oils / isolation & purification
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / metabolism
  • Skin / pathology
  • Wound Healing / drug effects*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils
  • Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
  • Acetic Acid
  • Hydroxyproline