Hydrogen saline treatment attenuates hyperoxia-induced retinopathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and reduction of VEGF expression

Ophthalmic Res. 2012;47(3):122-7. doi: 10.1159/000329600. Epub 2011 Dec 9.


Objective: Retinal neovascularization or retinopathy is a proliferative disorder of the retinal capillaries and is the primary cause of blindness. Some studies have shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in hyperoxia-induced retinal neovascularization. Previous reports have indicated that hydrogen has a therapeutic, antioxidant activity by selectively reducing hydroxyl radicals. This study examined the therapeutic effect of hydrogen saline on retinopathy in an established mouse model of hyperoxia-induced retinopathy.

Methods: Mouse pups were exposed to 75% O(2) from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12. Hydrogen saline was administered by intraperitoneal injection (5 ml/kg) daily for 5 days. On P17, the pups were decapitated, and retinal neovascularization was assessed using fluorescence imaging and histopathological examination. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Oxidative stress was quantified based on the malondialdehyde (MDA) level.

Results: Hydrogen saline decreased retinal neovascularization, reduced the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, and suppressed the MDA levels.

Conclusions: Hydrogen saline may be a potential treatment for hyperoxia-induced retinopathy that acts via the inhibition of oxidative stress and the reduction of VEGF expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hydrogen / therapeutic use*
  • Hyperoxia / complications*
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Retinal Neovascularization / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Neovascularization / metabolism*
  • Retinal Neovascularization / physiopathology
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism*


  • Antioxidants
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Hydrogen