Baseline characteristics, management practices, and long-term outcomes of Middle Eastern patients in the Second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2)

Ann Saudi Med. Jan-Feb 2012;32(1):9-18. doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2012.9.


Background and objectives: Limited data are available on patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their long-term outcomes in the Arabian Gulf countries. We evaluated the clinical features, management, in-hospital, and long-term outcomes of in such a population.

Design and setting: A 9-month prospective, multicenter study conducted in 65 hospitals from 6 countries that also included 30 day and 1-year mortality follow-up.

Patients and methods: ACS patients included those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), including non-STEMI and unstable angina. The registry collected the data prospectively.

Results: Between October 2008 and June 2009, 7930 patients were enrolled. The mean age (standard deviation), 56 (17) years; 78.8% men; 71.2% Gulf citizens; 50.1% with central obesity; and 45.6% with STEMI. A history of diabetes mellitus was present in 39.5%, hypertension in 47.2%, and hyperlipidemia in 32.7%, and 35.7% were current smokers. The median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival for STEMI patients was 178 minutes (interquartile range, 210 minutes); 22.3% had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 65.7% thrombolytic therapy, with 34% receiving therapy within 30 minutes of arrival. Evidence-based medication rates upon hospital discharge were 68% to 95%. The in-hospital PCI was done in 21% and the coronary artery bypass graft surgery in 2.9%. The in-hospital mortality was 4.6%, at 30 days the mortality was 7.2% , and at 1 year after hospital discharge the mortality was 9.4% ; 1-year mortality was higher in STEMI (11.5%) than in NSTEACS patients (7.7%; P<.001).

Conclusions: Compared to developed countries, ACS patients in Arabian Gulf countries present at a relatively young age and have higher rates of metabolic syndrome features. STEMI patients present late, and their acute management is poor. In-hospital evidence-based medication rates are high, but coronary revascularization procedures are low. Long-term mortality rates increased severalfold compared with in-hospital mortality.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / therapy
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Angina, Unstable / epidemiology*
  • Angina, Unstable / therapy
  • Angioplasty / statistics & numerical data
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / statistics & numerical data
  • Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data*
  • Electrocardiography / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Middle East / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stents / statistics & numerical data
  • Thrombolytic Therapy / statistics & numerical data
  • Treatment Outcome