Clinical features of anterior segment dysgenesis associated with congenital corneal opacities

Cornea. 2012 Mar;31(3):293-8. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e31820cd2ab.

Abstract

Purpose: Anterior segment dysgenesis is one of the main causes of congenital corneal opacities. In this study, we investigated the clinical features and visual outcomes of patients with anterior segment dysgenesis in a large number of cases.

Methods: The medical records of patients with congenital corneal opacities in relation to anterior segment dysgenesis seen in the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, between April 2002 and October 2009, were retrospectively studied.

Results: Records of 220 eyes of 139 patients were reviewed. Mean follow-up period was 5 years. Clinical diagnoses were Peters anomaly (72.7%), anterior staphyloma (11.4%), Rieger anomaly (7.7%), sclerocornea (6.4%), and others (1.8%). Visual acuity was measured in 61 patients. The best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of bilaterally involved patients was 20/60 to 20/1000 (low vision according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) in 43.2% and less than 20/1000 (legally blind) in 24.3%. Fundus examination was performed in 82 eyes, and disorders were seen in 12 (12 of 82; 14.6%). Systemic abnormalities were present in 35 patients (35 of 139; 25.2%); a family history was present in 5 patients (5 of 139; 3.6%). Of the 160 eyes of 109 patients with Peters anomaly, 51 patients (51 of 109; 46.8%) had bilateral Peters anomaly, 30 (30 of 109; 27.5%) had fellow eyes that were normal, and 28 (28 of 109, 25.7%) showed other abnormal ocular findings in the fellow eye.

Conclusions: Anterior segment dysgenesis shows diverse clinical features, various severities of corneal opacities, and visual outcomes. Further understanding of the disease as an abnormality during embryogenesis and neural crest cell differentiations may be required.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anterior Eye Segment / abnormalities*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Corneal Opacity / congenital*
  • Corneal Opacity / pathology*
  • Eye Abnormalities / pathology*
  • Eye Abnormalities / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Young Adult