Recommendations for use of an isoniazid-rifapentine regimen with direct observation to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Dec 9;60(48):1650-3.


Preventing tuberculosis (TB) by treating latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a cornerstone of the U.S. strategy for TB elimination. Three randomized controlled trials have shown that a new combination regimen of isoniazid (INH) and rifapentine (RPT) administered weekly for 12 weeks as directly observed therapy (DOT) is as effective for preventing TB as other regimens and is more likely to be completed than the U.S. standard regimen of 9 months of INH daily without DOT. This report provides CDC recommendations for using the INH-RPT regimen. The new regimen is recommended as an equal alternative to the 9-month INH regimen for otherwise healthy patients aged≥12 years who have LTBI and factors that are predictive of TB developing (e.g., recent exposure to contagious TB). The new regimen also can be considered for other categories of patients when it offers practical advantages. Although the INH-RPT regimen was well tolerated in treatment trials, monitoring for adverse effects is recommended. Severe adverse effects should be reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antitubercular Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Contraindications
  • Directly Observed Therapy
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Humans
  • Isoniazid / administration & dosage*
  • Latent Tuberculosis / drug therapy*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Rifampin / administration & dosage
  • Rifampin / analogs & derivatives*


  • Antitubercular Agents
  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin
  • rifapentine