The family of death domain (DD)-containing proteins are involved in many cellular processes, including apoptosis, inflammation and development. One of these molecules, the adapter protein MyD88, is a key factor in innate and adaptive immunity that integrates signals from the Toll-like receptor/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TLR/IL-1R) superfamily by providing an activation platform for IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAKs). Here we show that the DD-containing protein Unc5CL (also known as ZUD) is involved in a novel MyD88-independent mode of IRAK signaling that culminates in the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Unc5CL required IRAK1, IRAK4 and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 but not MyD88 for its ability to activate these pathways. Interestingly, the protein is constitutively autoproteolytically processed, and is anchored by its N-terminus specifically to the apical face of mucosal epithelial cells. Transcriptional profiling identified mainly chemokines, including IL-8, CXCL1 and CCL20 as Unc5CL target genes. Its prominent expression in mucosal tissues, as well as its ability to induce a pro-inflammatory program in cells, suggests that Unc5CL is a factor in epithelial inflammation and immunity as well as a candidate gene involved in mucosal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.