Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) caused approximately 44000 US invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases in 2008. Antibiotic nonsusceptibility complicates IPD treatment. Using penicillin susceptibility breakpoints adopted in 2008, we evaluated antibiotic-nonsusceptible IPD trends in light of the introductions of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010.
Methods: IPD cases were defined by isolation of pneumococcus from a normally sterile site in individuals residing in Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) areas during 1998-2008. Pneumococci were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility using broth microdilution.
Results: During 1998-2008, ABCs identified 43198 IPD cases. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains caused 6%-14% of IPD cases, depending on age. Between 1998-1999 and 2008, penicillin-nonsusceptible IPD rates declined 64% for children aged <5 years (12.1-4.4 cases per 100000), and 45% for adults aged ≥65 (4.8-2.6 cases per 100000). Rates of IPD nonsusceptible to multiple antibiotics mirrored these trends. During 2007-2008, serotypes in PCV13 but not PCV7 caused 78%-97% of penicillin-nonsusceptible IPD, depending on age.
Conclusions: Antibiotic-nonsusceptible IPD rates remain below pre-PCV7 rates for children <5 and adults ≥65 years old. PCV13 vaccines hold promise for further nonsusceptibility reductions.