Purpose: This phase I dose-escalation study investigated the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, preliminary activity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of BKM120, a potent and highly specific oral pan-Class I PI3K inhibitor.
Patients and methods: Thirty-five patients with advanced solid tumors received daily BKM120 12.5 to 150 mg. Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model with overdose control. Assessments included archival tumor molecular status, response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), positron emission tomography tracer uptake ([(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET]), fasting plasma C-peptide, and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6) in skin biopsies.
Results: Overall, treatment was well tolerated. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 2 mood alteration (80 mg), grade 3 epigastralgia, grade 3 rash, grade 2 and grade 3 mood alteration (100 mg), and two grade 4 hyperglycemia (150 mg). The MTD was 100 mg/d. Frequent treatment-related adverse events included rash, hyperglycemia, diarrhea, anorexia, and mood alteration (37% each); nausea (31%); fatigue (26%); pruritus (23%); and mucositis (23%). BKM120 demonstrated rapid absorption, half-life of ∼40 hours, ∼three-fold steady-state accumulation, dose-proportional exposure, and moderate interpatient variability. One patient demonstrated a confirmed partial response (triple-negative breast cancer); seven patients (20%) were on study for ≥ 8 months. BKM120 demonstrated dose-dependent pharmacodynamic effects on [(18)F]FDG-PET, fasting C-peptide, fasting blood glucose, and pS6. No significant trends were seen to correlate tumor molecular alterations with clinical activity.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept of class I PI3K inhibition in patients with advanced cancers. BKM120, at the MTD of 100 mg/d, is safe and well tolerated, with a favorable PK profile, clear evidence of target inhibition, and preliminary antitumor activity.