Resistive oxygen gas sensors for harsh environments

Sensors (Basel). 2011;11(4):3439-65. doi: 10.3390/s110403439. Epub 2011 Mar 24.


Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations.

Keywords: UEGO; ceria; conductometric gas sensors; lambda-probe; strontium titanate; titania.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Cerium / chemistry*
  • Environment
  • Gases / analysis*
  • Gases / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Nanotechnology / instrumentation
  • Nanotechnology / methods
  • Oxides / chemistry*
  • Oxygen / analysis*
  • Oxygen / chemistry
  • Potentiometry / methods
  • Strontium / chemistry*
  • Temperature
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Zirconium / chemistry


  • Gases
  • Oxides
  • titanium dioxide
  • Cerium
  • ceric oxide
  • Zirconium
  • Titanium
  • strontium titanium oxide
  • zirconium oxide
  • Oxygen
  • Strontium