Overview of primary monogenic dystonia

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012 Jan:18 Suppl 1:S158-61. doi: 10.1016/S1353-8020(11)70049-9.


Primary monogenic forms of dystonia manifest solely or mainly with dystonia; they have been linked to a number of genes and loci and assigned "DYT" numbers. The pure dystonia syndrome early-onset primary dystonia (DYT1) manifests with dominantly-inherited generalized dystonia, often with focal onset in a limb. DYT1 is caused by a GAG deletion in the TOR1A gene. Mutations in the THAP1 gene cause DYT6, a form of pure dystonia that primarily involves cranio-cervical and upper limb muscles. Patients with the dystonia plus syndrome DYT5 display levodopa-responsive dystonia sometimes associated with tremor or parkinsonism (DYT5a, mutations in GCH1); a more severe phenotype with psychomotor involvement can be seen in recessive forms (DYT5b with TH mutations, SPR-deficiency syndrome). Other forms of dystonia plus syndromes include myoclonic dystonia (DYT11) and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT12). Finally, paroxysmal exertion-induced dystonia (DYT18, GLUT1 deficiency) is caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene (DYT9 and DYT18). It is part of the paroxysmal dystonia group and manifests with paroxystic movements sometimes associated with seizures and psychomotor developmental delay.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dystonic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Dystonic Disorders / genetics*
  • Dystonic Disorders / therapy
  • Humans

Supplementary concepts

  • Dystonia, Dopa-responsive
  • Myoclonic dystonia