Treatment of chronic kidney disease

Kidney Int. 2012 Feb;81(4):351-62. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.380. Epub 2011 Dec 14.


Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can slow its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the therapies remain limited. Blood pressure control using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has the greatest weight of evidence. Glycemic control in diabetes seems likely to retard progression. Several metabolic disturbances of CKD may prove to be useful therapeutic targets but have been insufficiently tested. These include acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and vitamin D deficiency. Drugs aimed at other potentially damaging systems and processes, including endothelin, fibrosis, oxidation, and advanced glycation end products, are at various stages of development. In addition to the paucity of proven effective therapies, the incomplete application of existing treatments, the education of patients about their disease, and the transition to ESRD care remain major practical barriers to better outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy
  • Disease Progression
  • Endothelin-1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / prevention & control
  • Oleanolic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Oleanolic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Pyridones / therapeutic use
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy*
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Endothelin-1
  • Pyridones
  • Oleanolic Acid
  • bardoxolone methyl
  • pirfenidone