Objective: Decompressive craniectomy reduces fatality in patients with space-occupying infarctions. However, mortality remains high. We aimed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and outcomes in a cohort of patients with large hemispheric stroke receiving decompressive craniectomy.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with complete middle cerebral artery infarction and receiving decompressive craniectomy. Hospital characteristics were compared among different groups (survivors versus non-survivors, good outcome versus poor outcome). A total of 71 consecutive patients were enrolled.
Results: From 2004 January to 2010 April, 71 patients were enrolled whose mean age was 65.11 ± 13.13 years and 33 (46.5%) of these were men. The in-hospital mortality was 28.2% overall. Of the patients who survived and were discharged, 37 (77.1%) had poor outcome (mRS 4-6) and 11 (22.9%) had good outcome (mRS 0-3). Pre-operation brain computed tomography (CT) hypodensity volume (p = 0.001) was significantly associated with mortality. In binary logistic regression model, pre-operation brain CT hypodensity volume (OR = 1.015; 95% CI, 1.001 to 1.030) and age (OR = 1.112; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.215) were both significantly associated with outcomes.
Conclusions: In patients with large hemispheric stroke receiving decompressive craniectomy, pre-operation brain CT hypodensity volume was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality whereas age was not. Pre-operation brain CT hypodensity volume and age were predictors of outcomes in those who survived the acute phase.