Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a mainstay of therapy in many disorders. An uncommon adverse side effect is IVIG-related hemolysis. Risk factors for IVIG-related hemolysis have been identified, including high dose IVIG given to non-O blood group recipients with an underlying inflammatory state. IVIG-related hemolysis has been linked to anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in the IVIG preparations and may involve both IgG and complement mediated hemolysis. A two-hit mechanism with threshold effect is proposed for IVIG-related hemolysis. Strategies exist to minimize or avoid IVIG-related hemolysis.
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