Background: Several studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D (CaD) may play a role in the regulation of abdominal fat mass.
Objective: This study investigated the effect of CaD-supplemented orange juice (OJ) on weight loss and reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in overweight and obese adults (mean ± SD age: 40.0 ± 12.9 y).
Design: Two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted with either regular or reduced-energy (lite) orange juice. For each 16-wk trial, 171 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment groups consumed three 240-mL glasses of OJ (regular or lite) fortified with 350 mg Ca and 100 IU vitamin D per serving, and the control groups consumed either unfortified regular or lite OJ. Computed tomography scans of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue were performed by imaging a single cut at the lumbar 4 level.
Results: After 16 wk, the average weight loss (∼2.45 kg) did not differ significantly between groups. In the regular OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.024) in the CaD group (-12.7 ± 25.0 cm(2)) than in the control group (-1.3 ± 13.6 cm(2)). In the lite OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.039) in the CaD group (-13.1 ± 18.4 cm(2)) than in the control group (-6.4 ± 17.5 cm(2)) after control for baseline VAT. The effect of calcium and vitamin D on VAT remained highly significant when the results of the 2 trials were combined (P = 0.007).
Conclusions: The findings suggest that calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation contributes to a beneficial reduction of VAT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT00386672, NCT01363115.