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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2012 Jan;95(1):9-16.
doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.016261. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Study: Effects on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Study: Effects on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins

Michael A Roussell et al. Am J Clin Nutr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: A Step I diet with lean beef compared with lean white meat both decrease LDL cholesterol. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated a low-saturated fatty acid (SFA) (<7% calories) diet that contains lean beef.

Objective: We studied the effect on LDL cholesterol of cholesterol-lowering diets with varying amounts of lean beef [ie, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH): 28 g beef/d; Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet (BOLD): 113 g beef/d; and Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet plus additional protein (BOLD+): 153 g beef/d] compared with that of a healthy American diet (HAD).

Design: Thirty-six hypercholesterolemic participants (with LDL-cholesterol concentrations >2.8 mmol/L) were randomly assigned to consume each of the 4 diets (HAD: 33% total fat, 12% SFA, 17% protein, and 20 g beef/d), DASH (27% total fat, 6% SFA, 18% protein, and 28 g beef/d), BOLD (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 19% protein, and 113 g beef/d), and BOLD+ (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 27% protein, and 153 g beef/d) for 5 wk.

Results: There was a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05) after consumption of the DASH (-0.49 ± 0.11 and -0.37 ± 0.09 mmol/L, respectively), BOLD (-0.48 ± 0.10 and -0.35 ± 0.9 mmol/L, respectively), and BOLD+ (-0.50 ± 0.10 and -0.345 ± 0.09 mmol/L, respectively) diets compared with after consumption of the HAD (-0.22 ± 0.10 and -0.14 ± 0.10 mmol/L, respectively). Apolipoprotein A-I, C-III, and C-III bound to apolipoprotein A1 particles decreased after BOLD and BOLD+ diets compared with after the HAD, and there was a greater decrease in apolipoprotein B after consumption of the BOLD+ diet than after consumption of the HAD (P < 0.05 for both). LDL cholesterol and TC decreased after consumption of the DASH, BOLD, and BOLD+ diets when the baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was <1 mg/L; LDL cholesterol and TC decreased when baseline CRP concentration was >1 mg/L with the BOLD and BOLD+ diets.

Conclusions: Low-SFA, heart-healthy dietary patterns that contain lean beef elicit favorable effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid and lipoprotein risk factors that are comparable to those elicited by a DASH dietary pattern. These results, in conjunction with the beneficial effects on apolipoprotein CVD risk factors after consumption of the BOLD and BOLD+ diets, which were greater with the BOLD+ diet, provide support for including lean beef in a heart-healthy dietary pattern. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00937898.

Figures

FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.
Recruitment flow diagram.
FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 2.
Change in lipids and lipoproteins. Mean percentage change (±SEM) from the HAD (HAD: n = 33; DASH: n = 35; BOLD: n = 34; and BOLD+: n = 34). The MIXED procedure in SAS software (version 9.2; SAS Institute Inc) was used to test the effects of diet. *Significantly different from the HAD, P < 0.05. BOLD, Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet; BOLD+, Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet plus additional protein; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; HAD, healthy American diet; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides.

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