Objective: To determine the immediate and long-term therapeutic efficacies of Gufoni and head-shaking maneuvers in apogeotropic type of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the horizontal semicircular canal (HC-BPPV), a randomized, prospective, sham-controlled study was conducted.
Methods: In 10 nationwide dizziness clinics in Korea, 157 consecutive patients (95 women, age range: 18-89 years, mean age ± SD = 59.9 ± 13.6) with apogeotropic HC-BPPV were randomized to Gufoni (n = 52), head-shaking (n = 54), or sham maneuver (n = 51). For Gufoni maneuver, patients underwent ipsilesional side-lying and upward head-turn for migration of the debris toward the vestibule. Immediate responses were determined within 1 hour after a maximum of 2 trials of each maneuver and in the following day. The patients also had weekly follow-ups for 1 month after the initial maneuver.
Results: After a maximum of 2 maneuvers on the initial visit day, Gufoni (38/52, 73.1%) and head-shaking (33/53, 62.3%) maneuvers showed better responses than the sham maneuver (17/49, 34.7%). The cumulative therapeutic effects were also better with Gufoni (p < 0.001) and head-shaking (p = 0.026) maneuvers compared with the sham maneuver. However, therapeutic efficacies did not differ between the Gufoni and head-shaking groups in terms of both immediate (p = 0.129) and long-term (p = 0.239) outcomes.
Conclusion: Using a prospective randomized trial, we demonstrated that the Gufoni and head-shaking maneuvers are effective in treating apogeotropic HC-BPPV.
Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that Gufoni and head-shaking maneuvers are effective in treating apogeotropic horizontal BPPV up to 1 month after initial treatment.
Clinical trial registration: NCT00810641.