The making and transnationalization of an ethnic niche: Vietnamese manicurists

Int Migr Rev. 2011;45(3):639-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2011.00861.x.


The article addresses how Vietnamese immigrant women developed an urban employment niche in the beauty industry, in manicuring. They are shown to have done so by creating a market for professional nail care, through the transformation of nailwork into what might be called McNails, entailing inexpensive, walk-in, impersonal service, in stand-alone salons, nationwide, and by making manicures and pedicures de riguer across class and racial strata. Vietnamese are shown to have simultaneously gained access to institutional means to surmount professional manicure credentializing barriers, and to have developed formal and informal ethnic networks that fueled their growing monopolization of jobs in the sector, to the exclusion of non-Vietnamese. The article also elucidates conditions contributing to the Vietnamese build-up and transformation of the niche, to the nation-wide formation of the niche and, most recently, to the transnationalization of the niche. It also extrapolates from the Vietnamese manicure experience propositions concerning the development, expansion, maintenance, and transnationalization of immigrant-formed labor market niches.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Beauty Culture* / economics
  • Beauty Culture* / education
  • Beauty Culture* / history
  • Credentialing / economics
  • Credentialing / history
  • Credentialing / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Economics* / history
  • Ethnicity* / education
  • Ethnicity* / ethnology
  • Ethnicity* / history
  • Ethnicity* / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Ethnicity* / psychology
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Nails*
  • Vietnam / ethnology
  • Women, Working* / education
  • Women, Working* / history
  • Women, Working* / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Women, Working* / psychology