The core myopathies, Central Core Disease and Multiminicore Disease, are heterogeneous congenital myopathies with the common defining histopathological feature of focally reduced oxidative enzyme activity (central cores, multiminicores). Mutations in the gene encoding for the skeletal muscle ryanodine (RyR1) receptor are the most common cause. Mutations in the selenoprotein N (SEPN1) gene cause a less common variant. Pathogenic mechanisms underlying dominant RYR1 mutations have been extensively characterized, whereas those associated with recessive RYR1 and SEPN1 mutations are emerging. Identifying a specific genetic defect from the histopathological diagnosis of a core myopathy is complex and ought to be informed by a combined appraisal of histopathological, clinical, and, increasingly, muscle magnetic resonance imaging data. The present review aims at giving an overview of the main genetic and clinicopathological findings, with a major emphasis on features likely to inform the diagnostic process, as well as current treatments and perspectives for future research.
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