Computed tomographic (CT) and chest radiographic findings were retrospectively correlated with those found at fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in 58 patients presenting with hemoptysis. Abnormalities involving the airways were depicted by CT in a total of 28 cases (48%). In 18 of these (31% of the total group of 58), focal abnormalities involving the central airways were identified (17 were subsequently proved to be malignant) and in 10 (17% of the total), CT showed bronchiectasis. Focal airway abnormality was shown by FOB in 18 cases (31%); all of these were depicted with CT. Malignancy was diagnosed in 24 patients, including three in whom results of FOB were normal but malignant cells were identified at transbronchial biopsy. CT abnormalities were identified in all cases of malignancy. In 10 of 21 cases (48%) of non-small cell lung cancer, CT allowed definitive staging by documenting either direct mediastinal invasion and/or metastatic disease, while FOB allowed definitive staging in only three cases. CT studies provided no false-negative results. It is concluded that when carefully performed, CT may be an effective modality for evaluating patients presenting with hemoptysis.