Recent evidence suggests that systemic autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are not separate entities, but rather are interconnected processes. Immunodeficiency results from distinct defects of the immune response and primarily presents as infections but also frequently with autoimmune features. Systemic autoimmunity is the combined effect of multiple genetic variations and infectious and immunoregulatory factors that result in dominant autoimmune manifestations, in addition to frequent and opportunistic infections. The overlap in disease manifestations and symptoms suggests that immunodeficiency should be considered in the presence of autoimmunity, and vice versa. In this review, we present the shared or similar aspects of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity using systemic lupus erythematosus as a paradigm and discuss the implications for clinical care.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.