Mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, import most of their proteins from the cytosol. It was originally assumed that mitochondria imported precursor proteins via a general pathway but recent studies have revealed a remarkable variety of import pathways and mechanisms. Currently, five different protein import pathways can be distinguished. However, the import machineries cooperate with each other and are connected to other systems that function in the respiratory chain, mitochondrial membrane organization, protein quality control and endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junctions. In this Opinion, we propose that mitochondrial protein import should not be seen as an independent task of the organelle and that a network of cooperating machineries is responsible for major mitochondrial functions.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.