Effects of Ficus Carica Paste on Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Rats

Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar;50(3-4):895-902. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.12.001. Epub 2011 Dec 9.


Objective: Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study examined the effects of fig (Ficus carica L.) paste for the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in a rat model.

Methods: Animals were divided into one normal control group and four experimental groups (0, 1, 6, and 30 g/kg). Loperamide (2 mg/kg, twice per day) was injected intraperitoneally to induce constipation in the four experimental groups. Fig paste was administered for 4 weeks to assess its anti-constipation effects.

Results: Fecal pellet number, weight and water content were increased in the fig-treated groups as compared to the control group. Reductions in body weight and increased intestinal transit length were observed in the fig-treated groups. Fecal pellet number was reduced in the distal colons of the fig-treated rats. Exercise and ileum tension increased in the experimental groups as compared to the control group. According to histological analyses, the thickness of the distal colon and areas of crypt epithelial cells that produce mucin were increased in the fig-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Constipation was decreased when fig fruit was fed to rats. Specifically, fecal number, weight, and water content, as well as histological parameters such as thickness and mucin areas in the distal colon were improved. Fig treatment may be a useful therapeutic and preventive strategy for chronic constipation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antidiarrheals / pharmacology
  • Antidiarrheals / therapeutic use*
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Constipation / blood
  • Constipation / chemically induced
  • Constipation / drug therapy*
  • Drinking Behavior / drug effects
  • Feces
  • Feeding Behavior / drug effects
  • Gastrointestinal Transit / drug effects
  • Loperamide / pharmacology
  • Loperamide / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Peristalsis / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Antidiarrheals
  • Loperamide