Purpose: To investigate prognostic and risk factors for recurrence after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), focusing on dual time point F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET).
Materials and methods: We prospectively evaluated 57 patients with stage I NSCLC (45 T1N0M0 and 12 T2N0M0) who had undergone pretreatment FDG-PET/CT and were subsequently treated with SBRT. All patients received a whole-body PET/CT scan at 60 min and a whole-lung at 120 min after the injection. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and retention index (RI) of the lesions were calculated. Local recurrence, regional lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and the recurrence pattern were evaluated. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to evaluate prognostic factors or risk factors of recurrence.
Results: During the median follow-up period of 27 months, local recurrence, regional lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were seen in 17 (30%), 12 (21%), and 17 (30%) of the 57 patients, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rate was 63.4%. SUVmax did not affect any recurrence, DFS, OS, or CSS. RI significantly predicted higher distant metastasis (HR 47.546, p=0.026). In contrast, RI tended to predict lower local recurrence (HR 0.175, p=0.246) and regional lymph node metastasis (HR 0.109, p=0.115).
Conclusions: SUVmax at staging FDG-PET does not predict any recurrence, DFS, OS or CSS. In contrast, higher RI predicts higher distant metastasis and tended to predict lower local or regional lymph node metastasis.
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