Quantification of left and right ventricular kinetic energy using four-dimensional intracardiac magnetic resonance imaging flow measurements

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 Feb 15;302(4):H893-900. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00942.2011. Epub 2011 Dec 16.


We aimed to quantify kinetic energy (KE) during the entire cardiac cycle of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) using four-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). KE was quantified in healthy volunteers (n = 9) using an in-house developed software. Mean KE through the cardiac cycle of the LV and the RV were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.96). Mean KE was related to end-diastolic volume (r(2) = 0.66 for LV and r(2) = 0.74 for RV), end-systolic volume (r(2) = 0.59 and 0.68), and stroke volume (r(2) = 0.55 and 0.60), but not to ejection fraction (r(2) < 0.01, P = not significant for both). Three KE peaks were found in both ventricles, in systole, early diastole, and late diastole. In systole, peak KE in the LV was lower (4.9 ± 0.4 mJ, P = 0.004) compared with the RV (7.5 ± 0.8 mJ). In contrast, KE during early diastole was higher in the LV (6.0 ± 0.6 mJ, P = 0.004) compared with the RV (3.6 ± 0.4 mJ). The late diastolic peaks were smaller than the systolic and early diastolic peaks (1.3 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 mJ). Modeling estimated the proportion of KE to total external work, which comprised ∼0.3% of LV external work and 3% of RV energy at rest and 3 vs. 24% during peak exercise. The higher early diastolic KE in the LV indicates that LV filling is more dependent on ventricular suction compared with the RV. RV early diastolic filling, on the other hand, may be caused to a higher degree of the return of the atrioventricular plane toward the base of the heart. The difference in ventricular geometry with a longer outflow tract in the RV compared with the LV explains the higher systolic KE in the RV.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Diastole / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Female
  • Heart Ventricles / anatomy & histology*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Regional Blood Flow / physiology*
  • Rest / physiology
  • Stroke Volume / physiology
  • Systole / physiology
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology*
  • Ventricular Function, Right / physiology*
  • Young Adult