Multi-generation effects of Bt rice on Anagrus nilaparvatae, a parasitoid of the nontarget pest Nilapavarta lugens

Environ Entomol. 2010 Dec;39(6):2039-44. doi: 10.1603/EN10035.


Little is known about the potential cumulative long-term effects of transgenic crops on nontarget organisms. In the present laboratory study, the potential cumulative effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice on parasitoids in successive generations were observed for an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae parasitizing eggs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) feeding on Bt rice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test confirmed that Cry1Ab insecticidal protein could be detected in newly eclosed parasitoid adults. However, no significant effect on the fecundity of Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) was observed between Bt and non-Bt rice. Developmental times of both genders of A. nilaparvatae parasitizing host eggs laid in Bt (KMD1 and KMD2) rice lines were significantly prolonged from first generation to second generation, but not always prolonged from third generation to 11th generation as compared with the control rice line. Furthermore, the sex ratio of A. nilaparvatae progeny from the first generation to 11th generation in three rice lines was not significantly different. In general, our results suggested that the effect of Bt rice on this parasitoid could be negligible.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins / analysis
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Endotoxins / analysis
  • Endotoxins / genetics
  • Endotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Hemiptera / parasitology*
  • Hemolysin Proteins / analysis
  • Hemolysin Proteins / genetics
  • Hemolysin Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Host-Parasite Interactions / drug effects*
  • Insecticides
  • Male
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / parasitology
  • Oviparity / drug effects
  • Ovum / parasitology
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / parasitology
  • Sex Ratio
  • Wasps / chemistry
  • Wasps / drug effects*
  • Wasps / growth & development


  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Endotoxins
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • Insecticides
  • insecticidal crystal protein, Bacillus Thuringiensis