Hypovitaminosis D associations with adverse metabolic parameters are accentuated in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a body mass index-independent role of adiponectin?

J Endocrinol Invest. 2013 Jan;36(1):1-6. doi: 10.3275/8183. Epub 2011 Dec 15.


Background: Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with an increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and metabolic syndrome manifestations. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-VitD) levels and indices of insulin resistance (IR), including adipocytokines, in a Saudi population with or without DMT2.

Subjects and methods: A total of 266 subjects (153 DMT2 and 113 healthy controls) aged 26-80 yr were randomly selected from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort). Subjects were assessed clinically, anthropometry was performed, morning blood chemistries, including fasting glucose (FG), triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol were obtained. Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was calculated, and serum 25-OH-VitD, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin, high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were measured using specific assays.

Results: In DMT2 subjects, negative correlations between 25-OH-vitD and body mass index (BMI), FG, insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, LDL-C, and hsCRP were observed, while a positive correlation between 25-OH-VitD and adiponectin was detected. The later remained significant after controlling for BMI. Interestingly, only weak and nonsignificant associations between 25-OH-VitD and metabolic parameters were observed in the control group, whereas, when the entire population was examined, negative correlations were evident primarily between 25-OH-VitD and FG, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL-C. These associations remained significant after controlling for BMI.

Conclusions: These results suggest that hypovitaminosis D associations with metabolic disturbances are accentuated in DMT2. The BMIindependent positive correlation between 25-OH-VitD and adiponectin suggests a potential role for this adipocytokine as a link between 25-OH-VitD and IR in patients with DMT2.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipokines / blood
  • Adiponectin / blood*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Leptin / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Young Adult


  • Adipokines
  • Adiponectin
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Vitamin D