Development of a novel ketoprofen transdermal patch: effect of almond oil as penetration enhancers on in-vitro and ex-vivo penetration of ketoprofen through rabbit skin

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jan;25(1):227-32.


The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate topically applied ketoprofen gels and patches and to see the effect of naturally occurring almond oil as penetration enhancer on the penetration of ketoprofen through artificial membrane/rabbit skin. Prior to ketoprofen gel and patch formulation, the particle size and particle size determination of ketoprofen was analyzed by Particle size analyzer (Horiba LA300). Ketoprofen gels and patches were formulated and almond oil was added in several concentrations i.e. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%. The formulated gels were evaluated by several parameters like pH, spreadibility, consistency, homogeneity, skin irritation and drug content determination. In vitro drug permeation studies from transdermal gels and patches were carried out across artificial membrane and rabbit skin by using Franz Cell Apparatus (PermeGear, USA). Kinetics model was employed to the release patterns of ketoprofen from gel and patches in order to investigate the drug transport mechanism. The cumulative amount of drug penetrated from different formulations was statistically evaluated by using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Stability study was performed for various batches of ketoprofen transdermal gel. Almond oil as penetration enhancer in various concentrations significantly enhances the penetration of drug from transdermal gels and patch across synthetic membrane/rabbit skin but was most significant when used in 3% concentration.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacokinetics*
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods*
  • Drug Stability
  • Gels / administration & dosage
  • Gels / adverse effects
  • Gels / chemistry
  • Ketoprofen / administration & dosage
  • Ketoprofen / adverse effects
  • Ketoprofen / chemistry
  • Ketoprofen / pharmacokinetics*
  • Particle Size
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Rabbits
  • Skin / drug effects
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Skin Absorption / drug effects
  • Transdermal Patch / adverse effects*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Gels
  • Plant Oils
  • almond oil
  • Ketoprofen