Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used for the production of plastics. Frequent human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential public health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of BPA on germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation. Pregnant mice were treated with BPA at doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 mg/kg body weight/day from 12.5 day postcoitum. BPA was delivered orally to pregnant female mice. A dose-response relationship was observed with increased BPA exposure level associated with more oocytes in germ cell cyst and less primordial follicle at postnatal day 3 (P < 0.01). Progression to meiosis prophase I of oocytes was delayed in the 0.08 mg/kg bw/day treated group (P < 0.01). Decreased mRNA expression of specific meiotic genes including Stra8, Dmc1, Rec8 and Scp3 were observed. In conclusion, BPA exposure can affect the formation of primordial follicle by inhibiting meiotic progression of oocytes.