Guidelines on the treatment of chronic coinfection by Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV outside endemic areas

HIV Clin Trials. 2011 Nov-Dec;12(6):287-98. doi: 10.1310/hct1206-287.


As a result of population migration, Chagas disease is no longer limited to the North and South American continents. In HIV-infected patients, chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi behaves as an opportunistic infection in severely immunosuppressed patients and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Unlike other opportunistic infections, information on the natural history, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Chagas disease is scarce. Spain has the highest number of cases of Chagas disease outside the North and South American continents, and coinfection with HIV is increasingly prevalent. In this article, the Spanish Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health (Sociedad Española de Medicina Tropical y Salud Internacional) reviews the current situation of coinfection with HIV and T. cruzi infection and provides guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention in areas where Chagas disease is not endemic. It also identifies areas of uncertainty where additional research is necessary.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / transmission
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Chagas Disease / complications*
  • Chagas Disease / drug therapy
  • Chagas Disease / prevention & control
  • Chagas Disease / transmission
  • Chronic Disease
  • Coinfection
  • Endemic Diseases
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic / diagnosis
  • Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic / drug therapy
  • Recurrence
  • Trypanocidal Agents / therapeutic use*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Trypanocidal Agents