Gangliosides play an important role in neuronal differentiation processes. The regulation of ganglioside levels is related to the induction of neuronal cell differentiation. In this study, the ST8Sia5 gene was transfected into mESCs and then differentiated into neuronal cells. Interestingly, ST8Sia5 gene transfected mESCs expressed GQ1b by HPTLC and immunofluorescence analysis. To investigate the effects of GQ1b over-expression in neurogenesis, neuronal cells were differentiated from GQ1b expressing mESCs in the presence of retinoic acid. In GQ1b expressing mESCs, increased EBs formation was observed. After 4 days, EBs were co-localized with GQ1b and nestin, and GFAP. Moreover, GQ1b co-localized with MAP-2 expressing cells in GQ1b expressing mESCs in 7-day-old EBs. Furthermore, GQ1b expressing mESCs increased the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. These results suggest that the ST8Sia5 gene increases ganglioside GQ1b and improves neuronal differentiation via the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway.