Fibrocytes contribute to the fibrotic changes most frequently observed in forms of asthma where inflammation is driven by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. The mechanisms that regulate the profibrotic function of asthmatic fibrocytes are largely unknown. We isolated circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma, who showed the presence of fibrocytes, together with elevated concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and slightly increased concentrations of the Th17 cell-derived IL-17A, in induced sputum. Fibrocytes stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13 produced high levels of collagenous and non-collagenous matrix components and low levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, fibrocytes stimulated with IL-17A proliferated and released proinflammatory factors that may promote neutrophil recruitment and airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-17A also indirectly increased α-smooth muscle actin but not collagen expression in fibrocytes. Thus, fibrocytes may proliferate and express a predominant profibrotic or proinflammatory phenotype in asthmatic airways depending on the local concentrations of Th2- and Th17-derived cytokines.