The anticarcinogenic potential of vitamin D might be mediated by not only calcium metabolism but also other mechanisms initiated by vitamin D receptor (VDR). The authors measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteer examinees who underwent total colonoscopy in Tokyo, Japan, 2004-2005, and evaluated its influence on colorectal adenoma, both alone and in interaction with VDR polymorphisms, which correspond to the FokI and TaqI restriction sites. The main analysis of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D included 737 cases and 703 controls. Compared with the lowest quintile of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, only the highest was related to a significantly decreased odds ratio of colorectal adenoma (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.92). In contrast, all but the lowest quintile of dietary calcium intake presented similarly reduced odds ratios (odds ratio for the highest = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.95). Of note, the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal adenoma was modified by the TaqI polymorphism of the VDR gene (P(interaction) = 0.03) but not by dietary calcium intake (P(interaction) = 0.93). These observations highlight the importance of vitamin D in colorectal tumorigenesis. Vitamin D might protect against colorectal neoplasia, mainly through mechanisms other than the indirect mechanism via calcium metabolism.