Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect

Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2011;47(4):429-44. doi: 10.4415/ANN_11_04_16.


Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH). Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of mechanistic information in the hazard identification and characterization steps of the risk assessment process. The EU Integrated Project ReProTect (6th Framework Programme) implemented an array of in vitro tests to study different building blocks of the mammalian reproductive cycle: methodological developments and results on male and female germ cells, prostate and placenta are presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animal Testing Alternatives / trends*
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • European Union
  • Female
  • Fertilization / drug effects
  • Germ Cells / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Mutagenicity Tests
  • Mutagens / toxicity
  • Oocytes / drug effects
  • Placenta / drug effects
  • Pregnancy
  • Prostate / drug effects
  • Reproduction / drug effects*
  • Research Design
  • Spermatozoa / drug effects
  • Toxicology / trends*


  • Mutagens