Protein synthesis in plants is characterized by increase in the translation rates for numerous proteins and central metabolic enzymes during the day phase of the photoperiod. The detailed molecular mechanisms of this diurnal regulation are unknown, while eukaryotic protein translation is mainly controlled at the level of ribosomal initiation complexes, which also involves multiple events of protein phosphorylation. We characterized the extent of protein phosphorylation in cytosolic ribosomes isolated from leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana harvested during day or night. Proteomic analyses of preparations corresponding to both phases of the photoperiod detected phosphorylation at eight serine residues in the C-termini of six ribosomal proteins: S2-3, S6-1, S6-2, P0-2, P1 and L29-1. This included previously unknown phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 at Ser-231. Relative quantification of the phosphorylated peptides using stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry revealed a 2.2 times increase in the day/night phosphorylation ratio at this site. Phosphorylation of the S6-1 and S6-2 variants of the same protein at Ser-240 increased by the factors of 4.2 and 1.8, respectively. The 1.6 increase in phosphorylation during the day was also found at Ser-58 of the 60S ribosomal protein L29-1. It is suggested that differential phosphorylation of the ribosomal proteins S6-1, S6-2 and L29-1 may contribute to modulation of the diurnal protein synthesis in plants.