Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starter

Nutr J. 2011 Dec 23:10:139. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-139.


Background: Because the source of protein may play a role in its satiating effect, we investigated the effect of different proteins on satiation and short-term satiety.

Methods: Two randomized single-blind cross-over studies were completed. In the first study, we investigated the effect of a preload containing 20 g of casein, whey, pea protein, egg albumin or maltodextrin vs. water control on food intake 30 min later in 32 male volunteers (25 ± 4 yrs, BMI 24 ± 0.4 kg/m(2)). Subjective appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales at 10 min intervals after the preload. Capillary blood glucose was measured every 30 min during 2 hrs before and after the ad libitum meal. In the second study, we compared the effect of 20 g of casein, pea protein or whey vs. water control on satiation in 32 male volunteers (25 ± 0.6 yrs, BMI 24 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)). The preload was consumed as a starter during an ad libitum meal and food intake was measured. The preloads in both studies were in the form of a beverage.

Results: In the first study, food intake was significantly lower only after casein and pea protein compared to water control (P = 0.02; 0.04 respectively). Caloric compensation was 110, 103, 62, 56 and 51% after casein, pea protein, whey, albumin and maltodextrin, respectively. Feelings of satiety were significantly higher after casein and pea protein compared to other preloads (P < 0.05). Blood glucose response to the meal was significantly lower when whey protein was consumed as a preload compared to other groups (P < 0.001). In the second study, results showed no difference between preloads on ad libitum intake. Total intake was significantly higher after caloric preloads compared to water control (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Casein and pea protein showed a stronger effect on food intake compared to whey when consumed as a preload. However, consuming the protein preload as a starter of a meal decreased its impact on food intake as opposed to consuming it 30 min before the meal.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Caseins / administration & dosage
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Ovalbumin / administration & dosage
  • Pisum sativum / chemistry
  • Plant Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Polysaccharides / administration & dosage
  • Satiation / drug effects*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Time Factors
  • Whey Proteins


  • Blood Glucose
  • Caseins
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Milk Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Polysaccharides
  • Whey Proteins
  • maltodextrin
  • Ovalbumin