Effects of modern eating patterns on the cardiac autonomic nervous system in young Japanese males

J Physiol Anthropol. 2011;30(6):223-31. doi: 10.2114/jpa2.30.223.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the single intake of a high-energy and high-fat meal, of that of a moderate-energy and high-carbohydrate meal, and of fasting, which are major global eating patterns involving the combination of various levels of energy and nutrients, on heart rate variability in healthy young males. Participants were assigned to three groups: the high-energy and high-fat meal group, the moderate-energy and high-carbohydrate meal group, and the fasting group (no meal) in a randomized crossover design. The R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals. Physiological and psychological data were obtained before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after meal intake. The main results were: (1) decreased sympathetic modulation of the heart and increased parasympathetic modulation of the heart in the fasting group, indicated by an unchanged heart rate, a decreased lowfrequency/high-frequency ratio, and increased high-frequency power of heart rate variability in the fasting group; (2) cardiac sympathetic activation or parasympathetic withdrawal after the intake of either a high-energy and high-fat meal or a moderate-energy and high-carbohydrate meal, indicated by increases in the heart rate and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability, and a decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability in both the high-energy and high-fat meal group and the moderate-energy and high-carbohydrate meal group; and (3) the high-energy and high-fat meal group and the moderate-energy and high-carbohydrate meal group showed similar movement in physiological and psychological measurements after the meal intake. In conclusion, the intake of the high-energy and high-fat meal and the moderate-energy and high-carbohydrate meal similarly activated sympathetic modulation of the heart, whereas fasting suppressed sympathetic modulation of the heart compared with the other two eating groups in healthy young males.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Autonomic Nervous System / drug effects
  • Autonomic Nervous System / physiology*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Fasting / physiology
  • Feeding Behavior / physiology*
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hunger / physiology
  • Male
  • Wakefulness
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats