Abstract Hyperhomocysteinemia has recently been identified as an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the potential mechanisms underlying harmful effects of homocysteine (Hcy) is site-specific acylation of proteins at lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL). The accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a neuropathological hallmark of AD. In the present study we were interested to investigate the effects of N-homocysteinylation on the aggregation propensity and neurotoxicity of Aβ(1-42). By coupling several techniques, we demonstrated that the homocysteinylation of lysine residues increase the neurotoxicity of the Aβ peptide by stabilizing soluble oligomeric intermediates.
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