Although cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue are reported to have stem cell-like activity and are speculated to play a crucial role for tissue healing and regeneration after injury or orthodontic treatment, mechanisms regulating their recruitment and activation remain unknown. Recently, stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) has been reported to be important for stem cell homing and recruitment to injured sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) affects the expression of SDF-1α in PDL cells derived from human permanent teeth in vitro. Using real-time PCR, the expression of SDF-1α mRNA in PDL cells was inhibited by treatment with 10 ng/ml FGF-2. When PDL cells were treated with SU5402 (an inhibitor of FGF receptor 1) in combination with FGF-2, the FGF-2-reduced expression of SDF-1α was inhibited. In the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, SDF-1α mRNA in PDL cells was not suppressed by the FGF-2 treatment. Western blot analysis also showed that SDF-1α production was suppressed by treatment with FGF-2, but it recovered with treatment by FGF-2 + SU5402. These findings suggest that SDF-1α from PDL cells plays an important role in the regeneration and homeostasis of periodontal tissues via the recruitment of stem cells.