Effects of sugammadex on immunoreactivity of calcineurin in rat testes cells after neuromuscular block: a pilot study

J Mol Histol. 2012 Apr;43(2):235-41. doi: 10.1007/s10735-011-9384-9. Epub 2011 Dec 29.


Reversal of neuromuscular blockage induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents such as rocuronium can be achieved using normal dose of sugammadex, which has been shown to be very effective for such reversal. In this study, we determined the effects of sugammadex on calcineurin immunoreactivity by examining the histopathological and histochemical structure of rat testis cells after neuromuscular blockage. Moreover, the regional distribution levels of calcineurin immunopositive testes cells were investigated. Eighteen adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into one control and two study groups. Study groups 1 and 2 rats received sugammadex at doses of 16 and 96 mg kg(-1) i.v., respectively, after rocuronium treatment (mg kg(-1) i.v.). The control group received intravenous 0.9% NaCl 1 ml. i.v without any drug. Our study demonstrates that sugammadex is safe and effective for reversal of rocuronium effects in rats, as well as in other animals and humans. Furthermore, histopathological examination indicates that high levels of sugammadex-rocuronium complexes accumulate a little in testis tissue. We found that rocuronium-sugammadex complexes were remained in circulation for a long time resulting in a decrease in interstitial space, testis size, germ cell numbers and Leydig cell numbers. Calcineurin immunoreactivity was higher in the experimental groups than the control group due to increase of calcium level. The results suggest that sugammadex-rocuronium complexes are cause histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in testis interstitial tissues, as well as changes in sperm density and germ cell number.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Androstanols / administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Calcineurin / biosynthesis*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Germ Cells / cytology
  • Germ Cells / drug effects*
  • Germ Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Leydig Cells / cytology
  • Leydig Cells / drug effects*
  • Leydig Cells / metabolism
  • Male
  • Neuromuscular Blockade
  • Neuromuscular Junction / drug effects
  • Neuromuscular Junction / physiology
  • Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • Organ Size
  • Pilot Projects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Rocuronium
  • Sperm Count
  • Spermatogenesis / drug effects*
  • Sugammadex
  • Testis / cytology
  • Testis / drug effects*
  • Testis / metabolism
  • gamma-Cyclodextrins / administration & dosage
  • gamma-Cyclodextrins / therapeutic use*


  • Androstanols
  • Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents
  • gamma-Cyclodextrins
  • Sugammadex
  • Calcineurin
  • Calcium
  • Rocuronium