Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with poorer outcomes in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. It is unknown whether early eradication improves outcomes. This retrospective study assessed clinical and microbiological outcomes of eradication therapy following initial Pseudomonas infection. All patients undergoing Pseudomonas eradication therapy from 2004 to 2010 were identified retrospectively and assessed for microbiological eradication, exacerbation frequency, hospital admissions, clinical symptoms and lung function. 30 patients were identified with median follow-up time 26.4 months. Eradication therapy involved intravenous antibiotics (n = 12), intravenous antibiotics followed by oral ciprofloxacin (n = 13) or ciprofloxacin alone (n = 5), combined with 3 months of nebulised colistin. Pseudomonas was initially eradicated from sputum in 24 patients (80.0%). 13/24 patients remained Pseudomonas-free and 11/24 were subsequently reinfected (median time 6.2 months). Exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced from 3.93 per year pre-eradication and 2.09 post-eradication (p = 0.002). Admission rates were similar, at 0.39 per year pre-eradication and 0.29 post-eradication (p = NS). 20/30 patients reported initial clinical improvement, whilst at one-year follow up, 19/21 had further improved or remained stable. Lung function was unchanged. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas can be eradicated from a high proportion of patients, which may lead to prolonged clearance and reduced exacerbation rates. This important outcome requires confirmation in a prospective study.
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