Vitamin D and incidence of diabetes: a prospective cohort study

Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;31(4):571-3. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2011.12.001. Epub 2011 Dec 26.


Background & aims: To investigate the relationship between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Spanish population.

Methods: We undertook a population-based prospective study in a population from southern Spain. The first phase of the study (1996-1998) included 1226 individuals. Of this original cohort, 988 persons were reassessed in 2002-2004 and 961 in 2005-2007. Measurements were made of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone in 2002-2004 and an oral glucose tolerance test was done in three time points.

Results: The incidence of diabetes in subjects with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels ≤ 18.5 ng/mL (percentile 25) was 12.4% vs 4.7% in subjects with levels >18.5 ng/mL. The likelihood of having diabetes during the four years of follow-up was significantly lower in the subjects with higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [OR = 0.17 (0.05-0.61)]. None of the subjects with levels higher than 30 ng/mL developed diabetes.

Conclusion: In this prospective study, we found a significant inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes in a population from the south of Spain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Linear Models
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Vitamins


  • Blood Glucose
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D