Subsequent risks of Parkinson disease in patients with autoimmune and related disorders: a nationwide epidemiological study from Sweden

Neurodegener Dis. 2012;10(1-4):277-84. doi: 10.1159/000333222. Epub 2011 Dec 23.


Objectives: To investigate associations between autoimmune disorders and Parkinson disease (PD), and to study whether the risk is associated with follow-up time and age.

Methods: Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for PD in patients with autoimmune disorders by comparing them to subjects without autoimmune disorders.

Results: Among 310,522 patients with a total of 33 conditions of autoimmune disorders, 932 patients developed subsequent PD, giving an overall SIR of 1.33 and 1.19 for PD diagnosed later than 1 year after follow-up. Six types of autoimmune disorders showed an increased risk. These conditions included: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Graves's disease/hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's disease/hypothyroidism, multiple sclerosis, pernicious anemia, and polymyalgia rheumatica. The risks depended on the age at hospitalization for PD.

Conclusions: A 33% overall excess risk of PD was noted among patients with an autoimmune disorder; the risk was increased during the first 10 years of follow-up after hospitalization of autoimmune disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Autoimmune Diseases / classification
  • Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis
  • Autoimmune Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • International Classification of Diseases
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sweden / epidemiology